Maternity toxemia can occur during late gestation, often 14 days prepartum to two weeks postpartum. 7 , 10 There are two main distinct types of maternity toxemia even though medical photo is comparable both for. 7 common signs that are clinical anorexia, despair, ataxia, and dyspnea, which could progress to muscle tissue spasms, paralysis, and death. 7 , 13
Fasting or metabolic toxemia, also called maternity ketosis, is common in overweight sows, frequently in their first or second maternity. 10 The hefty need associated with growing fetuses produces a poor power stability and subsequent kcalorie burning of fat. 10 , 13 Laboratory findings consist of acidosis, hypoglycemia ( 8 , 12 , 13 , 17 , 30 Manage ketosis with hot intravenous (IV) or intraosseous isotonic liquids with dextrose and glucose that is oral. 10 commence a high-fiber, nutrient thick meals, like Emeraid Herbivore Intensive Care. 17 The prognosis for pregnancy toxemia is bad and avoidance is important. Encourage exercise and avoid obesity while ensuring sustenance and water is easily obtainable. 10 , 13 , 30 stress that is minimize avoid any alterations in the dietary plan or housing during belated maternity. 10
The form that is circulatory of toxemia, also called preeclampsia, is brought on by ischemia associated with the placenta and womb because of compression associated with circulation by the gravid womb. The womb may also compress circulation into the kidneys or gastrointestinal tract. 10 The fetuses are often decomposing and dead. 13 assessment of pregnancy-related ischemia relies upon indirect blood pressure levels dimension to take into consideration high blood pressure, as a result of compression associated with the renal vessels, or hypotension brought on by surprise. 10 findings that are laboratory proteinuria and elevated creatinine. 17 Institute surprise treatment for the hypotensive patient. 10 remedy for uteroplacental ischemia relies upon a crisis cesarean section and IV liquids with glucose, 13 even though this does carry significant clinical risk.
Sows have problems with a higher level of fetal fatalities (stillbirths) and very early neonatal deaths because of dystocia. 7 , 23 Dystocia could form in the event that breeding that is first delayed until following the pubic symphysis has fused, in the event that pups are way too big for the birthing canal, the birthing canal is uncommonly tiny, or as soon as the sow is overweight. 19 , 30 Suspect dystocia in gravid sows that show despair or even a bloody or discolored genital discharge. A crisis cesarean section is suggested in many situations. 23
Other diseases that are reproductive
Ovarian cysts, mammary gland tumors, along with uterine and cervical neoplasia are being among the most typical diseases reported into the sow. Other reproductive conditions described into the literature consist of genital or prolapse that is uterine mastitis, pyometra, metritis, vaginitis, orchitis, and epididymitis. 10 , 17
Unilateral or bilateral ovarian cysts (cystic ovarii that is rete are probably the most typical reproductive conditions of this sow (Fig 9). 10 , 24 , 25 solitary or multilocular, serous cysts have already been identified in 58% to 100per cent of sows between a couple of months to 5 years of age. 3 , 10 , 17 , 30 the dimensions and prevalence of cysts increases as we grow older. 7 , 24
Figure 9. Gross image illustrating ovarian cysts in a guinea pig (Cavia porcellus). Credit: Drury Reavill, DVM, DABVP (Avian Training), DACVP.
Ovarian cysts in many cases are connected with other conditions, such as for instance leiomyomas, granulosa cell tumors, cystic endometrial hyperplasia, mucometra, and endometritis. 4 , 7 , 10 , 28 Clinical indications can consist of pear-shaped abdominal distension, anorexia, despair, and sterility. 10 , 28 whenever practical follicular cysts can be found, bilaterally symmetrical alopecia may also be located on the flanks as a result of hyperestrogenism. 10 , 28 Behavioral changes, such as for instance violence or persistent estrus, could be seen. 28
Definitive diagnosis of ovarian cysts relies upon abdominal ultrasound or laparotomy that is exploratory although survey radiographs can determine big cysts most view of the time. 7 , 10 treating option is ovariohysterectomy or ovariectomy as recurrence is typical, but there clearly was danger connected with anesthesia and surgery in these older, clinically ill clients. 7 , 10 , 28 Hormonal treatment will not be proven to act as a fruitful mode of therapy. 10 , 24 , 28 as a result of the high incidence of ovarian cysts along with other reproduction problems, elective ovariohysterectomy or ovariectomy is preferred in non-breeding pets. 7
Reproductive tumors take into account around 25% of this neoplasms noticed in guinea pigs 36 months of age or older. 14 , 22 Reproductive tract tumors are far more typical in sows than boars, with mammary gland and uterine neoplasia most often reported. 14 , 18 , 22 tumors that are testicular unusual. 14 , 30
- Mammary adenocarcinomas and fibroadenomas may appear both in boars and sows. 14 , 21
- Reported uterine tumors consist of leiomyoma, leiomyosarcoma, fibroma, myxoid fibrosarcoma, and uterine spindle sarcoma. 14 , 21 , 28 , 30
- Spontaneous tumors that are ovarian teratomas, granulosa cell tumors, and adenocarcinomas. 4 , 14 , 21 , 30
- Cervical polyps, along with adenomas and adenocarcinomas of this cervix have also been described. 18
Male guinea pigs possess distinct scrotal pouches and testicles that are large. Boars also provide a few sex that is accessory, including paired seminal vesicles or vesicular glands. These big, coiled, blind sacs are really big, filling a portion that is large of caudal abdomen. Puberty happens between 2-3 months in male guinea pigs and also at 2 months in females. Sows are seasonally polyestrous and ovulators that are spontaneous. The guinea that is average maternity persists 68 times, with a reported range of 59-72 times. During gestation, the cartilage joining the bones of pubic symphysis starts to completely dissolve and is gone by delivery. This separation of this pubic symphysis may be insufficient in primiparous sows bred after 7-8 months and dystocia may result. Extra essential reproductive conditions include maternity toxemia and cysts that are ovarian. Neonatal guinea pigs are precocial. Guinea pig moms enable passive nursing and young from other females have the ability to nursing assistant, making fostering a viable possibility for the orphaned pup.